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Technical Risk

“Technical risk involves SynergenoG employing a wide suite of modelling and risk quantification techniques aimed at identiftying key risk reduction areas  and provide client with invaluable insight into potential incidents before they can occur.”

During technical risk assessment, a specialised team visits the client premises and draws up a comprehensive list of all the risks associated with operations to help the clients see potential red flags before an actual incident takes place.

In this respect, SynergenOG has helped numerous customers from all over the world avert unfortunate incidents.

Industrial media designed background with construction plan and blueprints for technical risk assessment services.

Elements of Risk Assessment

Fire and Explosion Risk Analysis (FERA)

Fire and Explosion Risk Analysis is to be conducted to identify credible fire scenarios that could result in a major process loss of containment and to determine their impact on personnel and the Main Safety Functions. This analysis mainly consists of two (2) parts:
• Consequence / physical effects modelling
• Frequency assessment.
Consequence / physical effects modelling is conducted using DNV Process Hazard Analysis Software Tools (PHAST) or equivalent software, to evaluate the extent of ignited event consequences for all credible hazards. For frequency assessment, SOG utilises its specialised in-house database (derived from established sources such as OGP, UK HSE and UKOOA) in order to develop an estimate of the potential frequency of release events

Non-Hydrocarbon Hazard Analysis (NHHA)

This assessment is typically conducted to evaluate all identified non-hydrocarbon related hazard incidents for any given facility. Example of hazards which may be covered within this study are:
• Helicopter Hazards;
• Boat Transport Hazards;
• Occupational Risk;
• Dropped Objects;
• Rotating Equipment/Missiles;
• Structural Failure;
• Mooring Failure;
• Non-Process Fires;
• Loss of Stability; and
• Security Threats

Escape, Evacuation and Rescue Analysis (EERA)

Escape, Evacuation and Rescue Analysis (EERA) is a goal based assessment of the various escape, evacuation and rescue elements present within a facility in order to ensure that personnel can safely leave the facilities in the case of a Major Accident Hazard being realised. The goals which can be assessed in this study (depending upon the type of facility) include:

• Alarm & Detection
• Escape
• Temporary Refuge/ Primary Muster Station
• Alternative Muster Area
• Evacuation
• Rescue
• Duration of time for complete evacuation

Temporary Refuge Impairment Analysis (TRIA)

Assess adequacy of the TR to support escape, muster, evacuation and rescue in the event of a major accident hazard (MAH). The analysis will determine the potential TR impairment mechanism (such as smoke and gas ingress, heat build-up from personnel, depletion of oxygen and build-up of carbon monoxide within the blood stream, fire impingement, and explosion overpressure).

Acoustic Induced Vibration (AIV) & Flow-Induced Vibration (FIV)

Vibration of process plant piping can be a significant risk to asset integrity and safety. This is often due to flow induced vibration (FIV) and acoustic induced vibration (AIV), and is related to the flow of the main process fluid through the piping system. SynergenOG uses a widely recognised approach towards AIV and FIV based on Norsok Standard and Energy Institute guidelines respectively.

SynergenOG, through its in-house calculation sheets is able to accurately map out your specific piping network and determine potential risk areas within the network which are susceptible towards failure. This can then be used to generate specific remedial steps to mitigate the potential vulnerable areas.

Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA)

Quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) are extensively used in petrochemical and process industries to evaluate the safety of activities, processes and systems. QRAs are generally required for production and processing facilities, pipelines and storage facilities.

QRA effectively calculates a numerical representation of the level of risk within a given facility in the form of one or more of the following:
• Location Specific Individual Risk (LSIR)
• Individual Risk Per Annum (IRPA)
• Potential Loss of Life (PLL)

QRAs through its numerical risk representation allow clients to:
• Benchmark risks against regulatory compliance levels, ALARP or industry best practice
• Identify key hazard risk drivers
• Provide clarity on which risk reduction measures should be considered or provide greatest degree of impact.

SynergenOG QRAs are customised towards our client’s facilities in order to ensure that risk levels are accurate and representative, using a combination of specialised in-house software spreadsheets and commercial software such as TNO RiskCurves (or equivalent).

Gas Dispersion modelling (in 2D and 3D forms)

This assessment looks at dispersion of smoke generated by fire events and unignited flammable/ toxic gas due to loss of containment/ leak incidents. Such incident may create a hazardous situation where personnel safety is compromised if exposed to a toxic gas cloud or plumes of smoke obscure their vision. When a gas or vapour is released into the atmosphere, it disperses in the atmosphere. This is a process whereby the original vapour cloud is diluted with the surrounding air as time passes. As wind is defined as the movement of air from one point to another, any vapour released into the air will naturally travel with the wind, that is, it is advected by the wind. These scenarios can be modelled using industrial recognised software (2D or 3D approach) to estimate the extent gas cloud based on its release characteristic, location of release, wind condition and the like.

Noise Study

Noise Study will be undertaken using the Cadna-A Noise Software to evaluate the personnel noise exposure. The assessment will evaluate significant potential airborne noise sources within the facility which are rotating equipment (such as pumps, compressors, generators, coolers) and flare.

The assessment will determine the noise level throughout the whole facility, comprising accommodation and exterior areas (including topsides and machinery spaces) under normal and emergency scenarios, as well as providing recommendation to mitigate the noise hazard. This analysis will provide a noise contour map highlighting noise ‘hotspots’ and aiding in defining facility noise restriction areas and PA/GA system design suitable for the facility. A report detailing this analysis results will be produced.

Flare Radiation and Vent Dispersion Study

Flare Radiation and Vent Dispersion Study is conducted in order to assess the potential impact of all potential flare / vent upon sensitive areas within the facility which may include manned areas, equipment intakes. This study shall utilise a combination of FLARESIM (for flare scenarios) and/or PHAST (for flare flameout or vent scenarios) in order to model the physical effects generated by the flare / vent.

Human Factors Engineering (HFE)

Human Factors Engineering (HFE) is the application of human factors knowledge to the design and construction of equipment, products, work systems, management systems and tasks. By understanding the working environment, user task demands as well as work constraints, work systems can be designed and/or improved in such a way to optimize human contribution to production and minimize potential for design-induced risks to health, personal, process safety or environmental performance. Example of HFE activities which may be covered within this scope are:
.• Valve Criticality Analysis (VCA);
• Safety Critical Task Analysis (SCTA);
• Alarm Management;
• Control Room Study; and
• HFE Design Verification.

Emergency System Survivability Analysis (ESSA)

The Emergency System Survivability Analysis (ESSA) study aims to determine the vulnerability of safety systems to MAH that may prevent them from maintaining the level of protection they are designed to provide. Safety systems are reviewed in the light of their vulnerability to each MAH – this requires a deep understanding of the design and their functionality. The assessment involves review of each system based on specific scenarios where their successful activation may be compromised. In cases where vulnerability is identified then redundancy in the system is evaluated and diversity should there be insufficient redundancy.

Technical Risk Management

  • What is risk assessment?

    Risk Assessment is the thorough and detailed process/assessment of hazard identification (HAZID), risk analysis, and risk evaluation.

  • What is risk assessment in technical risk management?

    Risk assessment is a term used to describe the overall process or method in technical risk management where we identify hazards and risk factors that have the potential to cause harm (hazard identification – HAZID); analyze and evaluate the risk associated with that hazard (risk analysis, and risk evaluation): and determine appropriate ways to eliminate the hazard, or control the risk when the hazard cannot be eliminated (risk control).

  • What are the elements of a risk assessment?

    Elements of risk assessments are:

    1. Identify Hazard
    2. Assess Hazard
    3. Control Risks
    4. Review Risk
  • What are the principles of risk assessment?

    Hazard Identification (HAZID), Assessment of Hazard and Risk, Control of Risk, and Review of the control effectiveness are the principles of Risk Assessment.

  • What are the risk assessment methods?

    There are 3 main types of Risk Assessment tools, namely qualitative i.e. using matrices and hazard identification (HAZID) techniques featuring guidewords, semi-quantitative i.e. where word descriptors are associated with numerical ratings and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) which is based on detailed consequence modelling and frequency analysis.

  • What are the benefits of risk assessment?

    Some of the benefits of Risk Assessment include maximising safety at minimum cost, helping to aid in decision making, calculating risk exposure and insurance requirements, as well as fulfilling certain legal requirements.

  • When should you do a risk assessment?

    Risk assessment can be conducted following the identification of major accident hazards within the facility. The Risk Assessment can be revisited in the event of a major change such as new machines, substances, and processes that could potentially lead to a major accident.

  • What are the technical risk management tools?

    Technical Risk Management Tools include Hazard Identification (HAZID), Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP), Consequence Modelling, Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA), Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA), Safety Integrity Level (SIL) Analysis, Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) and societal risk (FN Curves).

  • What is quantitative risk assessment?

    Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) is a formal and methodical method to estimate the likelihood and consequence of potential hazards that could lead to major accidents. The output from this assessment is expressed quantitatively as a risk to personnel/human, environment, or financial loss. Critical assumptions and risk driving elements are also identified to assess the robustness and validity of the results.

  • How do you do a quantitative risk assessment?

    Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) is summarised in these steps:

    • Hazard Identification (HAZID), to determine hazard and categorisation of MAH
    • Release Frequency Analysis, to calculate the total release frequency for all release scenarios through part counts
    • Consequence Modelling, to model the consequences (JF, FF, PF, EX)
    • Event Tree Analysis, to determine the potential end event likelihood
    • Risk Assessment, to estimate the fire impairment and personnel risk during the loss of containment
  • What is BowTie risk assessment?

    The BowTie Risk Assessment is a diagram method that can be used to analyse and demonstrate causal relationships in high-risk scenarios. The diagram is shaped like a Bow-Tie, creating a clear differentiation between proactive and reactive risk management.

  • What is BowTieXP?

    BowTieXP is the most used Risk Assessment software that is based on the BowTie Method to assess risk. It allows users the ability to visualize complex risks in a clear way while still being detailed.

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